meeting the requirements of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
From 1/62 to 10/63 I worked in Body Engineering Research on R and D in vehicle heating, ventilating and engine cooling. I carried out very many rig and vehicle tests of the performance of such systems and considerable analysis of the results. I also studied water and air flows and door seal pressure differences - all factors affecting these performances. Working with colleagues, I evolved methods of testing ducted ventilation systems that were used most successfully in the development of the Cortina Mark I Aeroflow heating and ventilating system and then adopted as standard procedures.
sponsored by Ford, taking the course leading to D.Au.E. (later M.Sc.) in Automobile Engineering. This introduced me to a wide range of more advanced techniques such as analogue and digital computing and finite element methods of structural analysis. My thesis was entitled "A Study of Vehicle Engine Cooling" and included a large literature survey of analytical methods of design and the implementation of one such as a digital computer program.
On returning to Body Engineering Research, I inspired a considerable development of the Test Laboratory and made detailed studies of suitable test equipment. I wrote - alone and jointly - three papers to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. I was also responsible for :-
After the move of the department to the Ford Research and Engineering Centre at Dunton, Basildon, Essex, U.K., I was increasingly involved in advising other departments - notably those responsible for the current design of engine cooling systems (also located at Dunton) and heating and ventilating systems (located at Merkenich, Cologne, Germany). With the promotion, my responsibilities for administration and for training also increased. To match new, higher power engines, I conducted a major study of the cooling systems for the Phase 2 "D" Series truck. I gave an invited lecture to a Cranfield seminar. For a project to analyse the performance of hot air windscreen defrosting systems, I introduced the use of a hot wire anemometer for mapping the air velocity patterns and of an infra-red scanner for the remote measurement of windscreen surface temperature -in each case with computer-plotted output. I defined and commissioned major new analyses - embodied in computer programs - for the aerodynamic design and analysis and the noise analysis of axial (engine cooling) fans from three outside research bodies. Following a Study Tour of Europe (at my own initiative and expense), I was seconded to a small group that drew up the user requirements for the Ford of Europe Environmental Wind Tunnel. This was duly built in Cologne, Germany for some five million dollars. During a sustained programme of evaluating many alternative designs of radiator, I initiated procedures for more rapid testing and much more complete analysis of the results. This greatly facilitated their use in cooling system design.
Following the in-house implementation of a fan aerodynamic design program (that I had commissioned), I initiated the manufacture of a 711 mm (28 in) diameter prototype fan by Numerically Controlled machining.
I then became responsible for a major study of the Ford of Europe heater-ventilator requirements for cars, vans, and trucks. This lead to the design of a single basic unit capable of meeting them all - so offering valuable rationalisation. Two prototype installations were built under my leadership, the second of which also incorporated reheat air conditioning.
In December 1974, Ford announced a programme of voluntary redundancies - although I was assured of retaining both my position and salary grade. As I had not been promoted for six years - despite receiving "Excellent" performance ratings for the last four - and I obtained an offer before the January deadline, I elected to leave.
I was attached to the Rolling Department of this major Swedish producer of copper and brass semi-manufactures. My experience of testing and analysing the performance of automotive radiators and heater cores was highly relevant to their endeavours in promoting their thin (0.025 mm, 0.001 in), high density (up to about 200 per dm, 55 per in) fin product.
For an international conference in Zurich, held by the CIDEC copper producers association, I prepared a paper describing the product and its performance - derived by a computer analysis - together with a film of the production machine, within eight weeks of joining the company. I even named the product the "Splitter Fin".
Over the next few months, I travelled with colleagues within Europe and to the U.S.A., visiting many actual and potential customers. As the body of performance data (largely reported by customers) grew, I subjected it to a form of analysis, based on the most advanced research practice, that I had learnt of during a Study Tour in the U.S.A.
As had been agreed on my arrival, I spent a small proportion of my time assessing the potential of the Splitter Fin in non-automotive applications - notably in heat recovery and the solar heating of buildings. In this connection, I visited several conferences, exhibitions and experimental houses. I defined a radiator performance test facility which was duly built and operated by another company on our behalf. Using the thus-enlarged body of performance data on the Splitter Fin, I used the above-mentioned analysis and clear patterns characterising all the design variants - and consistent with theory - were revealed.
As this was the major task sought of me and I wished to undertake a second long Study Tour in North America, I left the company. This was with no hard feelings on either side. Indeed, within a week, they had contacted me commissioning another paper for a forthcoming conference.
After this first commissioned work, I made proposals to prospective associates and clients in the fields of :
Together I called it Thermal Engineering. In developing these proposals, I have made many visits to research establishments in the U.K. and also made three further Study Tours overseas - two to the Continent and one to North America.
Following the publication of Energy Paper 20, on District Heating combined with Electricity Generation, I contacted Professor J.M. Cassels - the chairman of the working group on surveying building heat loads for district heating. This lead to him commissioning a report, which I entitled "Surveying Building Heat Loads by Aerial Thermography", under contract to the Department of Energy. This drew both on my existing knowledge of infra-red scanning for the remote measurement of surface temperature and on visits specially included in my June 1977 Study Tour of North America.
In addition to consulting, I took up writing articles in the fields of energy technology and policy - drawing on my Study Tours and coverage of many conferences and exhibitions - for a wide range of journals. These have included :- The Financial Times "European Energy Report", "International Power Generation", "Building Services and Environmental Engineer", "Electrical Review", and "Building Services". They total over 85 to date.
Following another Study Tour of North America in June 1979, I carried out a study entitled "Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) - Outline Design of a Power Plant of 5 MWe Gross" for British Shipbuilders Ltd.
Late in 1979 and early in 1980, I provided information to Mr Gerald Leach of the International Institute for the Environment and Development. This included a selective survey of the literature on solar energy collection and thermal energy storage.
In April 1980, at the request of Flakt Ltd., I produced a report entitled "Prospects for Controlled Ventilation and Heat Recovery Products in the U.K. Residential Sector".
From December 1980 to January 1982 I had a continuing consultancy assignment from the Polytechnic of Central London, who were studying the solar heating of buildings under a contract from the U.K. Department of Energy. My contributions included analysing and calculating the performance of solar collectors and thermal stores, drafting and commenting on parts of the report, writing - with David Boyd - a paper for presentation at the Solar World Forum in Brighton in August 1981 and comparing the performance and cost of various types of space heating emitters.
In the summer of 1981, I also carried out a major assignment for Granges Aluminium of Sweden (a sister company of Granges Metallverken, my former employer). This consisted of making preparations for - and assisting at - the exhibition at the Solar World Forum. It included advising on the choice of exhibits and writing much of the the promotional material - including the audio-visual and computer-graphics presentations.
In December 1981, I prepared a report for Fiat of Italy entitled "A Review of Engine Cooling System Design using Computer-Aided Methods".
Early in 1982, I wrote several brochures for the Sunstrip solar absorber product of Granges Aluminium of Sweden.
Later in 1982, I wrote an article, assisted in translation and drafted a brochure about their Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector for Philips of Eindhoven.
In November 1982, I provided information on the solar heating products available on the French and American markets for General Technology Systems Ltd. of Brentford, U.K.
In March/April 1983, I carried out a study for Earth Resources Research on the scope for electricity saving in domestic appliances and lighting. This included a survey of the data published in "Which ?" magazine and a computer-aided evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of additional insulation in a refrigerator.
I continued to write articles for journals such as "Electrical Review" and "Building Services".
In July/August 1983, I created for Philips a computer-graphics exhibit on their evacuated tubular solar collectors, based on an Acorn BBC computer. This comprised descriptions of several features using text, graphics and animation, together with analytical estimations of the performance and economics of solar heating systems. It was used on the Philips stand at the Solar World Congress in Perth, Australia and then taken back to Eindhoven.
In November 1983, I created a computer-graphics exhibit for Direct Data Marketing of Brentwood, again based on an Acorn BBC computer. This was designed to run inside - and in the windows of - their three showrooms and describes their computer-related products and services.
I then capitalized on my knowledge of computers - particularly the Acorn BBC - by starting to write reviews of various systems, hardware and software. The vast majority were for the magazine, "A & B Computing", (later "Archimedes World"). I produced major articles (usually one per issue) from January 1984 to June 1990. I also contributed occasional articles to "Personal Computer World" and other computing magazines. Analysing them later, I found that the largest number were about Acorn‘s own products, and the second largest number were about Computer Concepts products.I have also written private critiques and user manuals for several items of computer hardware and software.
My job was to promote the Computer Concepts products - both software and hardware - and incidentally the Acorn platforms on which they run. This I did by visits to Acorn dealers and latterly Acorn in Education Centres, in between attendance at shows both in the UK and abroad, and at Acorn Shows, RoadShows and dealer events. It involved demonstrating the full range of Computer Concepts products, including "Impression", a document processors, and "ArtWorks", a vector graphics package, and the scanners and printers etc. Also I often showed how other software, such as spreadsheets and databases, and hardware, such as CD-ROM drives, may be used in conjunction with CC products. Where appropriate, I emphasised the performance and cost advantages of our products, and the fact that they were British in origin.
From October 1996, after leaving Computer Concepts Ltd, I represented them at several Acorn shows.
From March 1997, on behalf of Acorn Computers, I gave demonstrations of their latest machine to various Acorn Clubs around the U.K.
In April 1997, I researched possible case studies for Acorn Computers Ltd, for development as short articles for publication on their Web site and elsewhere. I found 90 such, of which I rated 28 as excellent and another 38 as good.
In June 1997, I developed three case studies as articles, complete with pictures, two of which were put up on the Acorn Web site.
In September 1997, having had Internet access since March 1996, I created my own Web site (i. e. this one), which includes my CV, publications, and interests. I have also helped several friends with the selection of hardware and software, and with the configuration of the latter, for Internet access.
In February 1998, I was asked by Computer Concepts Ltd. to prepare training material on all their hardware and software products, and delivered it on their premises.
From February 1998, I was much occupied with Acorn Computers Ltd., who were trying to launch a new computer. In the event, this was cancelled, and the company was broken up in October 1998. Subsequently, I explored the possibility of (with colleagues) designing, making and selling a plug-in card for PCs, to enable them to run Acorn software. However, I decided not to go ahead, since the prospective outlay and risks were not balanced by the potential rewards.
Starting in January 1999, I installed temporary instrumentation on my central heating system. This enabled me to record its behaviour, in order to understand its working.
From January to June 1999, I designed and managed the refurbishment of the heating system of a large house, at a total cost of £ 20,000.
In September 1999, I created a web site for the Taylor Gallery London.
Starting in October 1999, I conducted extensive desk research on automotive vehicles and power trains with low emissions and fuel consumptions. This included ultra-Diesels, battery-electrics, hybrid-electrics, and fuel cell electrics. This activity continues.
In November 1999, I edited a technical article originally written by a German.
In December 1999, I edited a technical paper originally written by a German.
In February 2000, I translated a technical paper on vehicle aerodynamics from German.
From March 2000, I designed and managed the upgrading of the boiler and hot water store of my heating system. The new boiler was a super-condensing model, and the new store was a double-insulated cylinder with a high output coil.
From June 2000, I installed new, permanent instrumentation and a computer-based data logging system for my heating system. I also developed a spreadsheet model for analysing the logged data to determine the thermal performance and efficiency of the boiler and hot water store. With new data being logged every day, this activity continues.
In February 2001, having bought a Toyota Prius - the first hybrid-electric car to be produced in volume - in December 2000, I created a slide-show on it for presentation to a car club.
Later in 2001,the UK Government published a discussion document on Powering Future Vehicles. Although I learnt of it only late in the day, I carried out extensive research, mostly on the web, and submitted a response.
In February 2002, the Performance and Innovation Unit of the Cabinet Office published an Energy Review, and invited responses. Having previously worked on a response to a discussion document on Powering Future Vehicles, I greatly extended it to cover the Domestic, Services, Industrial, and Transport sectors. This involved me in very extensive research, mostly on the web, and the development of a new analysis for Combined Heat and Power, and of a model of the UK Energy System in 2050. I worked more than full time up to the deadline of 13 September 2002 (and beyond). As well as submitting my Response to the PIU, I sent copies to several individuals and organisations interested in energy policy. I later created a Presentation on the major findings.
In October 2002, I upgraded my computer network.
In November 2002, following a virus infestation, and with considerable help from friends, I upgraded my computers.
My more recent activity has included study tours and conferences, mostly on the Continent.